A state and shape annotation is indicated by a two-character annotation marker. Both characters of a state and shape annotation marker (SSAM) are lower-case letters. The following table lists the SSAMs alphabetically along with their meaning.

SSAM Meaning
al atomic layer
am amorphous
an antimatter (see examples)
aq in aqueous solution
ay alloy
br branch or branch-like structure (mesoscale)
cl cluster (smaller nanoparticle containing fewer than 104 atoms or molecules)
co core (in core-shell composites)
cp colloidal particle
cr crystalline
dp dispersed
ds dissolved (in non-aqueous medium)
gr grain
gs gaseous
ic intercalated compound
in incorporation (in matrix composite)
ip ion pair
lc liquid crystalline
lq liquid
ma matrix
mc micelle
mp mesoporous
mx mixture
nb nanobelt
nc nanocrystal
nd nanodisk
nf nanoflower
nh nanowhisker
nk nanoflake
nl nanocluster
nm nanoframe
no nanoporous
np nanoparticle, also: nanopowder consisting of nanoparticles
nr nanorod
ns nanostructure (generic)
nt nanotube
nw nanowire
pa particle
pc poly-crystalline
po porous
qc quasicrystalline
qd quantum dot
sc single-crystalline
sd solid
sh shell (in core-shell composites)
tf thin film
tw twinned crystal

In a notation of a multi-species material, the SSAM is only attached once—preferably to the last subnotation. For example, rock salt (sodium chloride) in aqueous solution is encoded as:


NaCl dissolved in aqueous methanol is encoded as


where the dictionary entry with key cc, expecting a comma-separated list of CurlySMILES notations, specifies the mixture components in SMILES notation: water, O, and methanol, CO.


A. Drefahl: CurlySMILES: a chemical language to customize and annotate encodings of molecular and nanodevice structures . J. Cheminf. 2011, 3:1; doi: 10.1186/1758-2946-3-1 .
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